Digital Bill of Lading The Future of Trade in Block Chain Ocean

In today’s Global Digital Village our Passport is accepted across the Countries and data is stored digital in immigration check. VISA and Master Cards are truly digital for payments. Then why not the Global Trade be truly digital ?

 

Letter of Credit:

In Global trade, Letter of Credit as a Financial Instrument is required if the Seller and Buyer do not have a trust relationship. When the goods are shipped using at least two different transportation modes, LC will require a standard document ‘ Bill of
Lading’ to acknowledge receipt of Cargo.

Paper Bill of Lading are the only mode of choice today, causing all the involved parties difficulties, costs, and discrepancies.

 

Lets sail through few nautical miles, on how the Trade industry benefit from Going Digital especially in the future world of Block Chain.

 

Digital Bill of Lading:

An Digital bill of lading or e-Bill of lading is the legal and functional equivalent of a paper bill of lading. It should digitize the core aspects of Physical BL, namely its legal acceptance as a receipt, as evidence of or containing the contract of carriage
and as a document of title. It should follow Global Best Practices- like how SWIFT message is standard across countries.

There are 6 main functionalities, a Digital version of the bill of lading needs to replicate –1)the identification, 2)signature, 3)correct address, 4)port/airport, 5)content and 6)trade terms and presentation of documents.

Please refer to below link for the Rules of Electronic Bill of Lading

http://comitemaritime.org/Rules-for-Electronic-Bills-of-Lading/0,2728,12832,00.html

 

Block Chain in Trade Finance

Distributed ledger technology, popularly known as blockchain, came into the picture in early 2014 and banks are now beginning to catch onto and further investigate the trend. Blockchain is revolutionising the exchange of value in a similar way to how the
internet revolutionised the exchange of information and communication.

Blockchain technology could revolutionise trade – making it cheaper, quicker and simpler for businesses to trade internationally.

There are two aspects of this technology:

1)     The promise of new opportunities and

2)     Scope for cost savings.

 

The Block Chain technology offers a potential medium to exchange financial and non-financial data without intermediaries, and the tamper-proof nature of the blocks eliminates the possibility of fraud. This technology could also address operational risk through
transparency, thus significantly helping banks reduce their operational costs when executing controls.

 

Why this is important for trade finance

 

Some of the key challenges facing the trade finance sector, which can be solved by Block Chain Technology.

 

For example:

 

Transparency

Feature to build transparency and consensus will help mitigate the risk of documentary fraud and thereby reduce the cost of transaction reconciliation between and within banks.

Traceability

The traceability associated with blockchain could potentially provide assurance and authenticity of products in the supply chain.

Data Privacy

The challenge of data privacy among counterparties to trade transactions could be overcome by utilizing tokenisation as a form of cryptography, whereby parties are only allowed to access permissioned information.

Smart Contracts

Smart contracts offer the possibility of self-executing contracts triggered by the efficient exchange of digital data, potentially revolutionising the long-serving Letter of Credit.

Internet of Things

Internet of things (IOT) which is still in the early stages of application to trade finance could be used to move physical assets while they are simultaneously tracked and purchased.

 

 

Source: Digital Bill of Lading The Future of Trade in Block Chain Ocean

2017 Blockchain Global Summit – Shape The Future

The BitKan “2017 Shape the Future” Blockchain global summit has changed its location, it will now be held in Hong Kong instead of Beijing and will take place later this month on September the 20th and 21st. Tickets for the event are still available to purchase.

BitKan has changed the location of their “2017  Shape The Future“summit from Beijing to Hong Kong, where it will now be held in the Grand Hyatt Hotel where it will run from September the 20th until the 21st. Tickets start at 1888 RMB. Anyone with tickets to the Beijing event will still be entitled to use them in Hong Kong.

BitKan ,founded in 2012, have seen the development of the Chinese Bitcoin industry since the coins early days. After 5 years of growth they now have a global user base numbering in the millions. They provide useful digital currency news, OTC trading, Bitcoin wallets, mining pool monitoring and more. The company is devoted to promoting the concept of Bitcoin and the block chain within the mass media.

The “Shape the Future” Global Summit

The event will provide a platform for guests and companies to introduce the latest Bitcoin technology and products associated with Bitcoin as well as bringing their individual vision of a Bitcoin future. BitKan state that they will have over 80 guests from top tier companies, with an audience of 800 including over 200 key influencers in the media world.  Speakers include Bitmain CEO Jihan Wu, the CEO of bitcoin.com Roger Ver, John McAfee and CEO of Huobi Lin Li. The schedule has day one labelled as “Shape The Future Summit”, with day two labelled as “Blockchain Tech Sessions”. For a full, up to date line up of the guest speakers, see the Bitkan website.

The Bitcoin Documentary

The event will also see a screening of the Bitcoin “Shape the Future” documentary which witnesses the history of BTC in China. Starting from Satoshi Nakamoto’s paper in 2008, it will chart how BTC has evolved into a 40 billion USD digital asset. It will focus on what has happened over the last 9 years of Bitcoin development and the role that China has played within the BTC industry.

Have you got your tickets? What do you think of the lineup? Let us know in the comments below?

Images courtesy of BitKan, Shape the Future

The post 2017 Blockchain Global Summit – Shape The Future appeared first on Bitcoinist.com.

Source: 2017 Blockchain Global Summit – Shape The Future

India’s Central Bank Considering Creating Digital Rupee, Dislikes Bitcoin

Following India’s unsuccessful demonitization scheme, the Reserve Bank of India is considering creating its own digital currency

India’s Central Bank, the Reserve Bank of India (RBI), is considering the possibility of issuing its own digital fiat currency as an alternative to Bitcoin, according to Economic Times. The bank expressed its displeasure with cryptocurrencies such as Bitcoin, calling them “private currencies.”

According to the central bank’s executive director Sudarshan Sen:

« As regards non-fiat cryptocurrencies, I think we are not comfortable. Bitcoins for example. That's a private cryptocurrency. Right now, we have a group of people who are looking at fiat cryptocurrencies. Something that is an alternative to the Indian rupee, so to speak. We are looking at that closely.”

Position of RBI on cryptocurrencies and other developments

The Indian central bank has been continuously issuing warnings to the public about the use of digital currencies like Bitcoin. According to the bank, such currencies present potential financial, consumer protection, legal, and security-related risks.

However, several media reports claimed that cryptocurrencies are becoming increasingly popular to investors. This popularity has reached greater heights since the assumption of Donald Trump as president of the US due to the huge jump in the prices of virtual currencies.

In its comment on the cryptocurrencies in March, then RBI deputy governor R Gandhi said that the potential of virtual currencies is overstated, citing the absence of a monetary authority or central bank supervising their use.

« Value seems to be a matter of speculation. Legal status is definitely not there. While this is a purported objective of a VC, it puts a natural limit for its progression. And finally, the usage of VCs for illicit and illegal activities has been reported as uncomfortably large. »

Source: India’s Central Bank Considering Creating Digital Rupee, Dislikes Bitcoin

Bitcoin’s Price Declines Anew, Hits Three-Week Low

There are three possible reasons for Bitcoin’s price hitting its three-week low of 3,300 levels, likely a correction rather than a crash

The price of Bitcoin price has declined below the $4,000-level, extending its losses in overnight trading to reach a three-week low of $3,275. This represents a 35% drop from its high of $5,000.

Put differently Bitcoin is now trading virtually flat month-on-month for the first time since mid-2017.

Possible reasons for the decline

There are several possible reasons behind the recent drop in the price of the number one virtual currency. One of these is the alleged plan by the government of China to ban the activities of various cryptocurrency exchanges in the country. The government has not formally announced any plan as such, but much rumor and innuendo abound.

Charlie Lee has been tweeting about this lately. He is the brother of BTCC CEO Bobby Lee, so many believe he has insights into the government’s plans toward Chinese exchanges. When critics pointed out that BTCC competitors OKCoin and Huobi had announced they were still open for business, Lee chortled:

 

OKCoin and Huobi are meeting with regulators tomorrow. They might soon change their tune. 😞 https://t.co/sS05td86X4

— Charlie Lee (@SatoshiLite) September 14, 2017
//platform.twitter.com/widgets.js

 

Another possible reason for the price drop is the sharp criticisms made by JPMorgan CEO Jamie Dimon on Bitcoin.

Counterpoints

However, there is the possibility that even if China heavily regulates exchanges in the country, it will have small effect on Bitcoin in the long term as the over-the-counter (OTC) market for the digital currency will continue to post solid performance. China also makes up a much smaller percentage of global trading volume than in the past.

The negative comments by Dimon on Bitcoin are not also surprising since if Bitcoin goes mainstream, Dimon is likely out of a job.

Some on the /r/bitcoinmarkets subreddit, such as joyrider5, believe this is simply a technical pullback. The price touched an important psychological level ($5,000), possibly leading to a sizeable amount of profit-taking. It’s important to remember that nothing can go straight up forever, and that corrections are healthy in the long run.

Some believe that the price of Bitcoin will reach a low of $3,000 which will be followed by a rally back into the low-$4,000s and possibly beyond. Until then, Bitcoin will only regain its bullish position if it surpasses the $4,400 level.

Source: Bitcoin’s Price Declines Anew, Hits Three-Week Low

Russia Central Bank Categorically Against Regulating Crypto as Money

Russia’s central bank is “categorically against” regulating crypto like forex or money, its head says.

Russia central bank head Elvira Nabiullina has said it is “categorically against” regulating cryptocurrency money, or equating it with foreign currency.

Speaking at a forum organized by a group of Russian banks, Nabiullina, who previously said she is against cryptocurrency appearing on the Moscow Stock Exchange, warned about so-called “cryptomania” occurring, which was “dangerous.”

“We are categorically against regulating cryptocurrencies as money, as a means by which payment can be made for goods and services, and against equating them with foreign currency,” she stated via RIA Novosti.

“Because, as I’ve said more than once before, we understand there’s foreign currency, states which issue it, economics, central banks supporting it. Here the phenomenon (of cryptocurrency) is less understood.”

Russia continues to present a mixed perspective on how to regulate cryptoassets, with different prominent government sources giving contrasting views.

At the forum, the situation appeared no different. Nabiullina commented that the central bank’s position was “tougher” than that held by the chairman of the organizing banking association, Anatoly Aksakov.

Speaking earlier at the event, Aksakov said he favored “legalizing, arriving at a definition of what cryptocurrency is, arranging a space in which it should be allowed to trade, introducing a register for miners etc.”

Nabiullina, for her part, made reference to a crypto “gold rush” earlier this month, which she said should be averted.

Russia currently plans to present cryptocurrency regulation plans by the end of 2017. It remains to be seen what exact form these will take for ordinary citizens.

Source: Russia Central Bank Categorically Against Regulating Crypto as Money

Bitcoin Price Drops Below $3,500, But Is Relief Rally In Sight?

The bitcoin-US dollar exchange (BTC/USD) rate fell to a fresh four-week low of $3,413 this morning following reports that Shanghai-based bitcoin exchange BTCC will shut down its domestic trading operations effective September 30.

As such, the announcement is the latest that supports the rumor regulators are preparing a formal ban on domestic bitcoin exchanges. Long liquidations in BTC markets have gathered pace amid fears that a confirmation from the People’s Bank of China will follow over the next few days.

According to data from CoinMarketCap, bitcoin’s price has shed 11 percent over the last 24 hours. The drop seen today has taken the week-on-week losses to 24 percent. Month-on-month, the cryptocurrency is down 19 percent.

Though driven lower by the bearish news flow, the sell-off should not come as a surprise as price action analysis favors the downside toward $3,000.

Let’s have a look at new developments on the technical charts that corroborate the bearish view presented 24 hours ago.

Daily chart

  • Yesterday’s price drop was accompanied by the highest volume since July 20. This indicates that the sell-off has substance and corroborates the bearish bias.
  • Bitcoin closed below the 50-day moving average for the first time since July 20.
  • The 38.2 percent Fibonacci retracement level has been breached to the downside. The 50 percent Fibonacci retracement level stands at $3,398.

Weekly chart

  • The chart above shows the 10-week simple moving average (SMA) is still sloping upwards, which indicates that the sell-off from the record high of $5,000 is a healthy technical correction. Moreover, at $5,000, the rally looked overstretched with the 10-week MA lagging significantly.
  • Confluence of key Fib levels is noted at the $3,400 levels [38.2 percent Fib retracement of the March low – September high and 50 percent Fib retracement of the July low – September high].

View

  • Bitcoin has already retracted close to 50 percent of the July–September rally. With the 1-hour and 4-hour RSI hovering in the oversold territory, the dips below the upward sloping 10-week SMA could be short lived.
  • A move higher to $3,750-3,800 cannot be ruled out before another round of sell-off unfolds.
  • In the long-term, BTC looks set to test $3,000 levels.

Disclaimer: This article should not be taken as, and is not intended to provide, investment advice. Please conduct your own thorough research before investing in any cryptocurrency.

Ferris wheel via Shutterstock

The leader in blockchain news, CoinDesk is an independent media outlet that strives for the highest journalistic standards and abides by a strict set of editorial policies. Interested in offering your expertise or insights to our reporting? Contact us at [email protected].

Disclaimer: This article should not be taken as, and is not intended to provide, investment advice. Please conduct your own thorough research before investing in any cryptocurrency.

Source: Bitcoin Price Drops Below $3,500, But Is Relief Rally In Sight?

Want to invest in a blockchain startup? Finles Capital has just the ICO for you

Boutique Dutch fund management house Finles Capital is looking to raise EUR100 million through an Initial Coin Offering for its next private equity fund, which will invest in blockchain startups as well as in more stable equity assets.

Finles is using its own cryptocurrency, called FundCoin, for the ICO, which it will invest in its Lowestoft Private Equity fund. The fund is targeting a speculative Internal Rate of Return of 25%, driven mainly by anticipated growth in the blockchain industry.Finles claims to have received enthusiastic backing for the ICO from investment groups in New York, Singapore, Moscow, Bratislava, London and Newark.

Larry Jones of Michaelson Capital Partners in New York believes the structure of the fund offers investors a safer harbour in an unpredictable market. “The cryptocurrency market is seen as an exciting one, but the extreme volatility means that it’s one for experienced and educated investors, » he says. « By investing in the blockchain market in combination with traditional private equity, investors have the best of both worlds. »

The booming ICO market is drawing the attention of regulatory bodies across the globe, with the FCA yesterday warning consumers of the high risks involved and the SEC hinting at future oversight restrictions. China authorities, meanwhile, have banned the practice all together. But the bubble continues to grow, with the Finextra mailbox receiving four separate announcements about forthcoming ICOs just this morning as new figures from TechCrunch reveal that ICO funding hit a record of $800 million in Q2 2017.

Source: Want to invest in a blockchain startup? Finles Capital has just the ICO for you

NO2X: Breaking Bitcoin Shows No Love for the SegWit2x Hard Fork in Paris

 

“There’s no such thing as a safe hard fork,” Electrum lead developer Thomas Voegtlin corrected an audience member at the Breaking Bitcoin conference in Paris last weekend. “I would recommend to have replay protection, of course,” he added.

Community support for SegWit2x, the Bitcoin scaling proposal spearheaded by Barry Silbert’s Digital Currency Group, was virtually absent in Paris. Whenever the “2x” part of the New York Agreement was discussed in the French capital, speakers and visitors overwhelmingly considered it a risk to defend against — not a proposal to help succeed.

Electrum users, for example, will not blindly follow hash power in case of a chain-split, Voegtlin explained throughout his talk; instead, they’ll be able to choose which side of such a split they want to be on. And importantly, the lightweight wallet will implement security measures to prevent users from accidentally spending funds on both chains: “replay protection” that seems unlikely to be implemented on a protocol level if SegWit2x does fork off.

“We are ready,” Voegtlin said. “If [SegWit2x] doesn’t include replay protection, the fork detection we have in Electrum will be useful.”

Breaking Bitcoin

Inspired by the successful Scaling Bitcoin conference format, the French Bitcoin community hosted the first edition of Breaking Bitcoin two blocks from the Eiffel Tower last weekend. Bitcoin developers, academics and other technical-minded Bitcoiners gathered for a diverse program, but with the common denominator being Bitcoin’s security.

“For the past two years, the Bitcoin community has been obsessing with scale and scalability,” Kevin Loaec, managing director at Chainsmiths and co-organizer of the event, told Bitcoin Magazine. “But I’m not so worried about scale, I’m worried about mining centralization, a lack of privacy and fungibility … these kinds of things. As an industry we need to recognize there are more challenges than just scalability; hopefully this conference reflects that.”

Whereas the first Scaling Bitcoin conference two years ago was a very specific reaction to a looming block size limit increase hard fork — then put forth by Bitcoin XT — this wasn’t necessarily the motivation behind Breaking Bitcoin. Yet, once again, a controversial hard fork is looming on the horizon. This time imbedded in the BTC1 implementation developed by Bloq co-founder Jeff Garzik, the New York Agreement’s SegWit2x is scheduled to increase Bitcoin’s “base block size limit” to two megabytes by November — an incompatible protocol change that could split the Bitcoin network in two.

And it did not take much to recognize how unpopular the proposal was in Paris. Perhaps most vividly, Milan-based blockchainlab BHB led a protest campaign by distributing NO2X stickers; the Twitter hashtag was proudly added as a piece of flair to the by now well-known Make Bitcoin Great Again and UASF hats. And voices critical of the project — like Voegtlin and his call for replay protection — could consistently count on rounds of applause. From a technical perspective, the proposal is often considered — quite frankly — to be reckless.

“Unfortunately, SegWit2x […] was designed to effectively be as disruptive to the minority chain,” MyRig engineer and BIP91 author James Hilliard said on stage during the miner panel.

SegWit2x: The Arguments

Arguments against the 2x hard fork are diverse.

Perhaps its biggest problem, SegWit2x currently lacks basic safety measures to prevent unsuspecting users from losing funds. This includes, most importantly, the aforementioned replay protection, but a new address format would be similarly helpful.

Additionally, the three-month lead time for this specific hard fork is considered extremely short — assuming the goal is to prevent a chain-split in the first place. “If you ask any of the developers, they will typically want to see 18 months or two years lead time, for something with as wide an impact on all the software and hardware out there as a hard fork,” Blockstream co-founder and Hashcash inventor Dr. Adam Back noted during a Q&A session.

And if the chain does split into different networks and currencies — one following the current Bitcoin protocol and one adopting the hard fork — the question becomes which of the two gets to use the name “Bitcoin.” So far, proponents of the SegWit2x hard fork have shown no willingness to pick a new name.

This branding issue, Bitcoin Core contributor and Ciphrex co-founder Eric Lombrozo pointed out, provides yet another point of controversy.

“My personal opinion is that whomever is proposing the change, the onus is on them to demonstrate widespread support,” Lombrozo said during his talk on protocol changes. “The people that want to keep status quo don’t need to show anything. It’s the people who want to change the stuff that actually need to demonstrate there is widespread support.”

And for now, not everyone is convinced that SegWit2x does indeed have this level of support — or anything close to it. While several large mining pools, as well as a significant number of companies, have signed on to the New York Agreement, this agreement was itself drafted without any feedback from Bitcoin’s technical community nor — even more important — a reliable gauge of user sentiment.

And while some Bitcoin companies claim to represent their customers, this is — once again — not taken for granted by everyone.

“One debate I want to draw attention to,” venture capitalist Alyse Killeen pointed out, “is the debate whether businesses speak for their users. I think this is probably a debate you would only see now in this space because it’s pretty well established that businesses outside of this space do not speak for users, but it’s a debate we still have in our community. Of course they don’t.”

NO2X

If Breaking Bitcoin in Paris can be considered at all representative of SegWit2x’s community support — which, it should be noted, is not necessarily the case — the proposal will face an uphill battle to be widely accepted in November.

Indeed, some signatories of the agreement are not so sure about the hard fork anymore: Bitwala and F2Pool have publicly backed out of the agreement. And, during a mining panel in Paris, Bitfury CIO Alex Petrov ever so slightly opened the door to potentially withdrawing support as well, if both the original and the 2x chain manage to survive.

In fact, it’s not just that contentious hard forks are considered a threat to be defended against by Bitcoin’s technical community. It goes beyond that.

In the words of Bitcoin developer Jimmy Song, at the conclusion of his opening talk of the event:

“What doesn’t kill Bitcoin makes it stronger. And conferences like this prove that we’re getting better at this. We’re getting immunized to all these hard forks, and it’s creating a better Bitcoin as a result, and that’s a very good thing. We’re securing against a lot of these attacks, and figuring out ways to mitigate these threats.”

Image courtesy of Federico Tenga

The post NO2X: Breaking Bitcoin Shows No Love for the SegWit2x Hard Fork in Paris appeared first on Bitcoin Magazine.

Source: NO2X: Breaking Bitcoin Shows No Love for the SegWit2x Hard Fork in Paris

Report: Cryptocurrency Mining Will Boost AMD and Nvidia Stock Prices

At least one major Wall Street firm expects that the stock prices for Nvidia and Advanced Micro Devices Inc. (AMD) will continue climbing as both companies continue to pursue opportunities in the cryptocurrency mining market.

Nvidia has seen its stock jump almost 180 percent over the last year, while AMD has jumped 112 percent as well, thanks to cryptocurrency miners’ extensive need for powerful graphics processing units (GPUs). Global investment banking firm Jefferies believes the market for GPUs will remain strong over the next several months, according to a new report.

According to a client note written by Jefferies analyst Mark Lipacis, the stocks are the market’s top performers for the past year – a state of affairs that is expected to continue looking ahead.

In the letter (quoted by CNBC), Lipacis said:

« We think that the risk of a ‘crypto-driven’ inventory correction driving material downside is low in the near term … Both AMD and NVDA have introduced ‘cryptospecific GPU [stock-keeping unit]’ that have a low risk of competing with core gaming GPUs in secondary markets. »

Both companies have taken advantage of cryptocurrency mining by developing and selling GPU models specific to that market. Cryptocurrency mining is an energy intensive process by which new transactions are added to a blockchain, creating new coins in the process as a reward.

Looking ahead

In the long-term, Lipacis does not expect either company to have to compete with second-hand equipment being sold by miners after they are through with the machines.

At the same time, Lipacis suggested that GPU prices could dip, an eventuality that may have an impact on the stock prices.

Even if the market for mining GPUs collapses, Lipacis does not believe it will have a major impact on either company’s bottom line. He expects AMD to undergo a 3% drop and Nvidia to undergo a 10% decrease in the event of a major catastrophe.

As previously reported, both companies have moved to capitalize on the interest in GPUs among the world’s miners. Nvidia’s CEO, Jen-Hsun Huang, recently declared that « cryptocurrencies and blockchain are here to stay, » signaling his firm’s long-term plans for the market.

While AMD hasn’t been as outwardly bullish in its own public statements, the company has seen significant interest in its products from miners as well.

Image Credit: MAX SAYPLAY / Shutterstock.com

The leader in blockchain news, CoinDesk is an independent media outlet that strives for the highest journalistic standards and abides by a strict set of editorial policies. Have breaking news or a story tip to send to our journalists? Contact us at [email protected].

Disclaimer: This article should not be taken as, and is not intended to provide, investment advice. Please conduct your own thorough research before investing in any cryptocurrency.

Source: Report: Cryptocurrency Mining Will Boost AMD and Nvidia Stock Prices

Bitcoin Drops Below $4,000 as Market Mood Turns Uncertain

After mounting a modest recovery in the wake of rumored regulatory scrutiny, the price of bitcoin is back below $4,000.

The average price of bitcoin across global exchanges fell below $4,000 at roughly 3:15 UTC today, hitting a low not observed since September 10. The movement followed a period in which the bitcoin price repeatedly tested $4,000, but succeeded in staying above the barrier.

All in all, the move comes during an uncertain time for the cryptocurrency market, which has seen a period of sideways trading following a torrid first half in 2017.

With the recent decline, the price of bitcoin is up just 1.7 percent over the last month, though it has still appreciated nearly 300% this year. Likewise, the broader cryptocurrency markets have seen similar activity, rising 3.4% over the last 30 days, but declining more than 17 percent from its highest point during the period, according to CoinMarketCap.

As for the current sentiment, continued rumors that China could move to close domestic order-book exchanges have no doubt concerned more casual investors (while providing opportunities for profit-taking from long-term bulls).

Fanning the flames have been statements from notable community figures that appear to attest to the accuracy of the claims, though details on the primary sources for that information have not been forthcoming.

China-based exchanges continue to operate normally at press time, indicating they have yet to be notified of any operational changes.

Pipe dripping via Shutterstock

The leader in blockchain news, CoinDesk is an independent media outlet that strives for the highest journalistic standards and abides by a strict set of editorial policies. Have breaking news or a story tip to send to our journalists? Contact us at [email protected].

Disclaimer: This article should not be taken as, and is not intended to provide, investment advice. Please conduct your own thorough research before investing in any cryptocurrency.

Source: Bitcoin Drops Below $4,000 as Market Mood Turns Uncertain